Habit: Annual or biennial, stoutish,
4 to 8 dm. high, glandular and highly scented.
Distribution: Commonly scattered in coastal sage scrub, woodland, and
chaparral, usually in disturbed places, from
Seed unit: Achene.
Seed: Achene small, brown, less than 1 mm.; pappus bristles free, usually
Embryo: Foliar embryo, no endosperm.
AOSA: PSU# 50 - Intact achene, with or without one or more of
the following structures: beak, bristle, hairs, pappus, wing, or
firmly attached floral remnants, provided a true seed with some
degree of embryo development can be detected (either by slight
pressure or by examination over light).
Piece of broken achene larger than one-half of the original
size, unless no seed is present. Seed, with or without
pericarp/seed coat; if broken, larger than one-half the original
ISTA: PSD #4 – Achene, with or without pappus, unless it is
obvious that no seed is present.
Lab notes: Smallest, shriveled achenes without substance called
inert. Difficult to draw line between pure and inert.
Average pure seed units per gram:
60,221 seeds per gram (based on AOSA pure seed units only from
37 samples received for testing from 1992 to 2004).
Range of percent pure seed:
1 to 17%
Range of percent inert: 82 to 99%
Description of inert: Plant material, insects.
Planting instructions: 400 seeds, TB, 21 days @ 15-25°C; for fresh and
dormant seed, prechill recommended.
to main reference page)
Hickman, J.C., Ed. 1993. p.271.
Munz, P.A. and D.D. Keck. 1968. p. 1260.
Ransom Seed Laboratory
Smith, C.F. 1998. p. 162.